Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)
Jung (pronounced young or in German, young) came from a very prominent family in Switzerland, the son of a pastor. His mentally troubled mother was hospitalized when he was three, an event that traumatized him; Jung was a lonely, troubled child, uncomfortable in the company of others. While studying medicine at Basel University, he made explorations into spiritualism, holding séances with his teenaged cousin. Throughout his career, Jung remained interested in occultism, telepathy, clairvoyance, Eastern religions, and mythology. As he wrote: "The irrational fullness of life has taught me never to discard anything, even when it goes against all our theories (so short-lived at best) or otherwise admits of no immediate explanation."
Jung’s theory divides the psyche into three parts: the ego (conscious mind), personal unconscious (currently unconscious, but can be made conscious), and the collective unconscious (a species-wide knowledge we are all born with). Within the collective unconscious are what Jung called archetypes, which include the Mother, the Persona, the Father, the Child, the Hero, the Wise Old Man, among others. The Anima archetype is the female quality in the collective unconscious of men and the Animus is the male aspect present in the female. Evidence from Jung’s letters strongly suggests that the concept of the Anima was inspired by Spielrein.